All Published Articles

Lynn L. Bergeson, "$1.4 Million Civil Penalty for TSCA Violations," Pollution Engineering, April 2012.

If anyone is thinking big penalties under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) are a thing of the past, think again. On Feb. 7, 2012, EPA announced that the Dover Chemical Corp. has agreed to pay a $1.4 million civil penalty for the unauthorized manufacture of chemical substances at facilities in Dover, Ohio, and Hammond, Ind. The settlement resolves alleged violations of TSCA premanufacture notice (PMN) obligations for the production of various chlorinated paraffins. According to EPA, the company produces the “vast majority” of chlorinated products sold in the United States. As part of the settlement, the company has ceased manufacturing short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP), which have persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) characteristics.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA Fines Dover Chemical $1.4 Million," Chemical Processing, March 14, 2012.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently announced that Dover Chemical Corporation has agreed to pay a $1.4-million civil penalty for alleged violations of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) premanufacture notice (PMN) obligations for the production of various short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP). This column explains why this enforcement action is noteworthy.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Predictions for EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention," ABA Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources, Pesticides, Chemical Regulation, and Right-To-Know Committee Newsletter, February 2012.
Lynn L. Bergeson, "TSCA Reform:  Business Strategies in Times of Political Gridlock," CHEManager Europe, March 2012.

Most would agree that legislative reform of the U.S. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is long overdue. Few agree on what to change and how best to proceed. If you throw in the 2012 presidential election, you have gridlock. Commerce marches on, however, and with the Environmental Protection Agency reinventing TSCA implementation in innovative and effective ways, Reach setting the new global tone, and California creating a new template for sustainable consumer products, TSCA reform is at risk of becoming a distracting afterthought. Stakeholders must develop new strategies to survive and flourish in these fast-changing times.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "ECHA Adds 20 SVHCs to Candidate List," Pollution Engineering, .

On December 19, 2011, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) announced that it added 20 substances of very high concern (SVHC) to the Candidate List, which now includes 73 substances.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Nanosilver Conditionally Registered as New Active Ingredient," Pollution Engineering, February 2012.

In August 2010, EPA announced that it was considering allowing the Swiss company HeiQ Materials Ag to enter the U.S. market with a new nanosilver pesticide and textile preservative, HeiQ AGS-20. On Dec. 1, 2011, the EPA issued a conditional registration for a pesticide product.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "NRDC Sues EPA Over Nanosilver," Chemical Processing, February 2012.

On January 26, 2012, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) sued the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for approving a pesticide product containing nanosilver under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). This article summarizes the lawsuit, explains what’s at stake, and discusses the lawsuit’s implications.

Lisa R. Burchi, Charles M. Auer, Kathleen M. Roberts, and Lynn L. Bergeson, "Are TSCA Section 8(b)(2) Statutory Mixture Categories Subject to Reporting Under the Chemical Data Reporting Rule?," Bloomberg BNA Daily Environment Report, January 26, 2012.

Based on written communications from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, questions have been raised as to the agency’s interpretation of the six chemical categories created under Toxic Substances Control Act Section 8(b)(2) authority. Chemicals long considered part of these well-established categories identified decades ago are complex reaction products that fall under the TSCA Section 8(b)(2) category listing. Given the statements from EPA over the past several years and recognizing that reporting under the TSCA Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule is just around the corner, a critically important question is whether chemicals that would otherwise fit within the Section 8(b)(2) categories are subject to reporting under the CDR. This article examines this question by considering the regulatory history and guidance, prior reporting that has occurred, and business issues associated with the question.

Lynn L. Bergeson, James V. Aidala, co-authors, "2012 Predictions For TSCA Reform And EPA Initiatives," Law360, January 19, 2012.

We offer our thoughts on what may be headed our way in 2012 with regard to reform of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and chemical management initiatives from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP).

Lynn L. Bergeson, "FDA’s Regulation of Nanotechnology: Will the New Draft Guidance Help Industry?," Nanotechnology Law & Business, Volume 8, Issue 3.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) approach to nanotechnology is the subject of intense interest for at least three reasons. First, many promising and visible applications of nano-technology include cosmetics, sunscreens, pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, and medical devices. These products are subject to FDA jurisdiction under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). Second, FDA faces unique challenges in regulating products of nanotechnology be-cause of the product-based regulatory structure created under the FFDCA. The rapid increase in nanotechnology applications in FDA-regulated products raises questions regarding the adequacy of the FDA's product-based approach given the differing statutory authorities FDA has over these product categories. Third, for regulatory purposes under the Act, FDA classifies medical products as drugs, devices, biologics, or combination products. A product’s mode of action determines which FDA Center has primary jurisdiction over the product. As nanotechnology matures, the distinctions between and among these classifications will blur, further stressing FDA's ability effectively to oversee products of nanotechnology subject to its jurisdiction.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Topical Briefing on recent Lawsuit filed against US FDA," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, January 7, 2012.

On the 21st of December 2011, a U.S. coalition of nonprofit consumer safety and environmental groups filed a lawsuit against the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for alleged failure to regulate what the coalition deems health and environmental risks stemming from nanotechnology-enabled products put on the market. The coalition was led by the International Center for Technology Assessment (ICTA) and represents the following plaintiffs: Friends of the Earth, Food and Water Watch, the Center for Environmental Health, the ETC Group, and the Institute for Agricultural and Trade Policy.

Lynn L. Bergeson, co-author, "Practical Advice for Product Steward Professionals on Remaining Competent, Socially Aware, and Scientifically Proficient," BNA Daily Environment Report, January 6, 2012.

Consumer product manufacturers are challenged today as never before. Materials selection for consumer products invites a dizzying range of considerations: Are the chemicals hormone disruptors, carcinogens, or persistent, bioaccumulative, or toxic? What toxicogenomic biomarkers might make the product the next celebrity tort case? What labeling requirements apply? What are the implications of genetic variations among the demographic to which the product is to be marketed? These considerations, in turn, invite legal, marketing, and technical issues that go well beyond questions of core compliance with the law. What exactly is the professional's role? How are regional differences in regulatory standards, consumer perceptions, ingredient restrictions, and related factors to be addressed? Given the complexity of the global issues and the high stakes involved, what must a professional do to remain competent, socially aware, and scientifically proficient? This article explores these thorny questions, not to resolve them as much as to flag them, and urge professionals -- whether lawyers, product stewards, scientists, or others in the field -- to remain vigilant and as prepared as possible in recognizing the constantly shifting demands on professionals in this area.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA Proposes New Use Rules:  Proposal could limit the use of 14 nanoscale substances," Chemical Processing, January 2012.

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed on December 28, 2011, significant new use rules (SNURs) for 17 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN), including seven substances with the term carbon nanotube (CNT) and seven substances with the term fullerene in their respective names. These 14 substances are subject to consent orders under Section 5(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). This column provides background on, and the implications of, these proposed SNURs.

Kathleen M. Roberts, "EPCRA - One Acronym, Many Facets Impacting NACD Membership," Chemical Distributor, January/February 2012.
Lynn L. Bergeson, "California’s New Safer Consumer Products Regulations," Pollution Engineering, January 2012.

On October 31, 2011, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) released an informal draft of their Safer Consumer Products Regulations (SCPR). The proposal came after the California Secretary for Environmental Protection instructed DTSC to stop issuing proposed regulations and to instead “take additional time to be responsive to the concerns raised and revisit the proposed regulations.”

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "EPA Publishes Proposed SNURs for 17 Chemicals, Including CNTs and Fullerenes," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, December 30, 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed on December 28, 2011, Significant New Use Rules (SNURs) (i.e. 76 Fed. Reg. 81447) for 17 chemical substances that were the subject of Premanufacture Notices (PMNs), including seven substances with the term carbon nanotube (CNT) and seven substances with the term fullerene in their respective names.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "The New Chemical Data Reporting Rule:  It’s More Than You Think," Environmental Quality Management, Winter 2011.

Chemical data reporting under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) just got a lot harder. That’s because on August 16, 2011, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issued its final Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule, previously referred to as the Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) Rule.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "New TSCA Reporting Rule Compels Disclosure of Much Information," American College of Environmental Lawyers, December 16, 2011.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published on August 16, 2011, the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule, previously referred to as the Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) Modifications Rule. 76 Fed. Reg. 50816. The rule authorizes EPA to collect and disclose information on the manufacturing, processing, and use of commercial chemical substances and mixtures listed on the TSCA Inventory. The CDR Rule also sets the upcoming submission period from February 1, 2012, to June 30, 2012, and will include submission of chemical production information from 2010 and chemical production, processing, and use information from 2011.
Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "US Environmental Protection Agency Grants First Approval for Nanopesticide," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, December 6, 2011.

According to the press release “EPA Announces Conditional Registration of Nanosilver Pesticide Product” published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the 1st of December 2011, the EPA granted a four-year conditional approval for a pesticide containing a nanomaterial. The pesticide contains the active ingredient nanosilver, known to have antimicrobial properties.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Identifying Priority Chemicals Under TSCA," Pollution Engineering, December 2011.

On Aug. 18, 2011, EPA rolled out its new approach for identifying priority chemicals for review and assessment under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). EPA invited public input on its Discussion Guide: Background and Discussion Questions for Identifying Priority Chemicals for Review and Assessment (Discussion Guide), which is available at www.epa.gov/opptintr/existingchemicals/pubs/chempridiscguide.html, and convened a webinar on Sept. 7, 2011 to review the document.

James V. Aidala, Co-Author, "TSCA Reform:  The Standard of Safety," Environmental Law Reporter News & Analysis, December 2011.

Several key issues have emerged as pivotal in ongoing efforts to reform TSCA. Progress on these complex issues is central to the success of TSCA reform. On July 21, 2011, ELI convened a panel of experts to examine the central issue of whether and what standard of safety should replace TSCA’s current “unreasonable risk” standard for regulating chemicals. Topics addressed included: hazard/exposure/risk criteria; burden of proof; judicial review of Agency decisions; sensitive populations; cost-benefit analysis; and application of the safety standard to new materials/technologies.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA Registers Nanosilver As Active Ingredient," Chemical Processing, December 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced on December 1, 2011, that it granted a conditional registration for a pesticide product containing nanosilver as a new active ingredient. This is a momentous regulatory decision and very good news for supporters of nanopesticides.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Nanomaterials discussed at 23rd September REACH Conference on in Brussels," Nanotechnologies Industries Association, November 4, 2011.

In addition to the definition of nanomaterials, at the REACH Conference on the 23rd September 2011 held in Brussels, the participants discussed the implications of REACH as concerns nanomaterials.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Cleaning It Up:  EPA Proposes Revisions to RCRA Definition of Solid Waste," Manufacturing Today, Fall 2011.
Lynn L. Bergeson, "NTP Proposes to Revise RoC Review Process," Chemical Processing, November 2011.

On October 31, 2011, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) published a notice inviting comments on its proposed Report on Carcinogens (RoC) review process and announcing a public listening session to receive oral comments. This is good news, as I'll explain.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "A Special Report: Important Changes Are Made to the Chemical Data Reporting Rule," Manufacturing Today, Fall/Winter 2011.

On August 16, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule, previously referred to as the Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) Modifications Rule. The CDR Rule expands the IUR to enable EPA to collect information on the manufacturing (including importing), processing, and use of commercial chemical sub­ stances and mixtures on the TSCA Chemical Substance Inventory (Inventory). This article provides highlights of the final rule.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA Issues Final Weight-of-Evidence Guidance," Chemical Processing, October 2011.

On September 28, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published its final guidance on the weight-of-evidence (WoE) analysis it will use to evaluate the results of data submitted in response to test orders issued for Tier 1 screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). What follows is a brief overview of the Final WoE Guidance, which is available at http://www.regulations.gov.

Lisa R. Burchi, Charles M. Auer, and Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA’s SNUR Authority and Key Points Regarding SNURs for Former New Chemicals," BNA Daily Environment Report, September 12, 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s use of its authority under the Toxic Substances Control Act is expanding. Its use of TSCA Section 5 ‘‘significant new use rule’’ (SNUR) authority is clearly on the increase, as most recently demonstrated by the important role that significant new use rules have in Chemical Action Plans. This article describes SNURs, their issuance and legal background, and a few key issues of which regulated entities need to be aware in responding to a proposed or promulgated SNUR.
 

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Targeting Priority Chemicals Under TSCA," Law360, September 2, 2011.

Embracing new social media tools, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on Aug. 18, 2011, invited stakeholders to provide feedback on its new approach for identifying priority chemicals for review and assessment under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Noting that the EPA’s online discussion forum will remain open until Sept. 14, 2011, the EPA invited public input on its “Discussion Guide: Background and Discussion Questions for Identifying Priority Chemicals for Review and Assessment” (available at http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/existingchemicals/pubs/chempridiscguide.html). The EPA has also scheduled a webinar on Sept. 7, 2011, to review and consider the Discussion Guide.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA Issues Chemical Data Reporting Rule," Chemical Processing, September 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued on August 16, 2011, the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule, previously referred to as the Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) Modifications Rule. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/cdr/. Set forth below are key components of the CDR Rule, how reporting will change from prior IUR reporting, and potential issues.

Lynn L. Bergeson and Kathleen M. Roberts, "Deconstructing EPA’s Chemical Data Reporting Rule," Law360, August 17, 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced on Aug. 2, 2011, the final Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule, previously referred to as the Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) Modifications Rule. Proposed revisions to the rule were the subject of considerable debate, which helps explain the rule’s long (nearly a year and a half) gestation period and extensive review by the Office of Management and Budget. The rule was published on Aug. 16 in the Federal Register (76 Fed. Reg. 50816) and becomes effective on Sept. 15, 2011.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA Moves Ahead with BPA Action Plan," Chemical Processing, August 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued on July 26, 2011, an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPR) concerning testing of bisphenol A (BPA). The notice applies to EPA’s chemical action plan issued under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) on BPA in March 2010. The ANPR shows the EPA is moving forward, sending a strong message that the agency isn't backing off plans to regulate BPA under TSCA, or any other chemical action plans.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Senate Science and Space Subcommittee Holds Hearing on National Nanotechnology Investment," Nanotechnologies Industries Association, July 15, 2011.

On 14th July 2011, the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation's Science and Space Subcommittee held a hearing on national nanotechnology investment. The hearing was held to examine the potential of nanotechnology, federal initiatives to coordinate research investments, barriers to commercialization, possible environmental and health risks, and steps Congress can take to improve the return on federal nanotechnology investments as the Committee works on drafting a reauthorization bill for the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI).

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Protect Yourself:  OSHA Releases a New Guidance," Manufacturing Today, Summer 2011.

For the manufacturing work force, selecting and requiring the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is one of the most important elements of assuring a safe and healthful work environment. What PPE to wear, who pays for it and how to determine which is the right PPE to protect against a known hazard in the workplace are all critically important issues, both from the perspective of an employee’s personal safety and an employer’s freedom from allegations of non-compliance. Eliminating the guesswork and ensuring compliance in this area just became a bit easier, as on Feb. 15, 2011, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a revised directive that provides enforcement guidance on determining whether employers have complied with OSHA’s PPE standards. The Enforcement Guidance for Personal Protective Equipment in General Industry, CPL 02-01-050, is the latest word from OSHA on PPE, and is a must read for employers and employees alike.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "U.S. Issues Guidance for Regulating Nanotechnology," Chemical Processing, July 2011.

On June 9, 2011, the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) released principles specific to the regulation and oversight of nanotechnology applications. The principles are intended to guide the development and implementation of policies, as described in “U.S. Decision-Making Concerning Regulation and Oversight of Application of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials.” This column discusses the principles and outlines their role in the governance of nanotechnology in the United States.

Lynn L. Bergeson, James V. Aidala, Charles M. Auer, "The Nuances Of ‘Nano’ In Pesticide Products," Law360, July 1, 2011.

On June 17, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released a much-anticipated notice describing possible approaches for obtaining information on the potential presence of nanoscale materials in registered pesticide products.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Protect Yourself," Manufacturing Today, Summer 2011.

For the manufacturing work force, selecting and requiring the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is one of the most important elements of assuring a safe and healthful work environment. What PPE to wear, who pays for it and how to determine which is the right PPE to protect against a known hazard in the workplace are all critically important issues, both from the perspective of an employee’s personal safety and an employer’s freedom from allegations of non-compliance. Eliminating the guesswork and ensuring compliance in this area just became a bit easier, as on Feb. 15, 2011, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a revised directive that provides enforcement guidance on determining whether employers have complied with OSHA’s PPE standards. The Enforcement Guidance for Personal Protective Equipment in General Industry, CPL 02-01-050, is the latest word from OSHA on PPE, and is a must read for employers and employees alike.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "State Chemical Reform Initiatives:  Advocates Press for Change," Environmental Quality Management, Summer 2011.

The federal Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) has remained largely unchanged since its adoption in 1976, some 35 years ago. Congressional inaction has not gone unnoticed by state governments, which are increasingly dismayed by their federal counterpart’s seeming indifference to the public’s demand for stricter chemical controls and its growing distrust of federal chemical-control measures. As a result, states are taking matters into their own hands by adopting laws, resolutions, and related chemical-control measures.

Lynn L. Bergeson, James V. Aidala, and Charles M. Auer, "Principles For Regulating Nanotech," Law 360, June 15, 2011.

On June 9, 2011, the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) announced that the White House Emerging Technologies Interagency Policy Coordination Committee (ETIPC) has developed a set of principles specific to the regulation and oversight of applications of nanotechnology. The principles are intended to guide the development and implementation of policies, as described in the title "U.S. decision-making concerning regulation and oversight of nanotechnology and nanomaterials" that occur at the agency level.

Lisa R. Burchi, Lisa M. Campbell, Leslie S. MacDougall, and Lynn L. Bergeson, co-authors, "Data Citation and Compensation: How REACH Compares With the FIFRA Scheme," BNA Daily Environment Report, June 1, 2011.

The European Union's REACH regulation is a complex chemical management regulation intended to replace approximately 40 previously existing legal instruments with a single EU regulatory scheme for all chemical substances (both new and existing substances). It also creates a data compensation scheme for entities that must rely upon studies another entity generated to complete their registration for a particular chemical substance. This article provides background on REACH registration, data compensation and sharing procedures, and compares REACH's data compensation principles with how similar issues are addressed in the context of FIFRA data compensation arbitrations.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "U.S. Wants More Transparency in Trade," Chemical Processing, June 2011.

On May 19, 2011, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) jointly issued a memorandum to U.S. departments and agencies highlighting the importance of regulatory transparency and openness to promoting international trade. The memorandum telegraphs the Administration’s renewed emphasis on the significant role international collaboration has in domestic policy development.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Australia Announces Updates on NICNAS New Chemicals Processes for Industrial Nanomaterials," Nanotechnologies Industries Association, May 6, 2011.

As nano aficionados know, last October the Australian Chemical Gazette included a notice that the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) announced that it was introducing new administrative processes for the notification and assessment of industrial nanomaterials that are considered to be "new" chemicals. The new administrative provisions were effective on January 1, 2011, and apply to any new chemical that falls under the working definition of "industrial nanomaterial." NICNAS also issued guidance on the notification program. Recently, the NICNAS provided an update on its track record to date on the new system. Before providing the update, noted below is a brief background with the new notification program.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Could TSCA Reform Be Coming Soon?," Chemical Processing, May 2011.

On April 14, 2011, Senator Lautenberg (D-NJ) introduced the Safe Chemicals Act of 2011 (S. 847) to modernize the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Lautenberg initiated similar legislation, S. 3209, in the 111th Congress. Below is a summary of key differences between Lautenberg's S. 847 and S. 3209.

Lynn L. Bergeson, James V. Aidala, Charles M. Auer, "The Devilish Details Of TSCA Reform," Law360, April 27, 2011.

On April 14, Sen. Frank R. Lautenberg, D-N.J., introduced the Safe Chemicals Act of 2011, which is intended to modernize the Toxic Substances Control Act to require chemical companies to demonstrate the safety of industrial chemicals and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate safety based on the best available science.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Lautenberg Reintroduces TSCA Reform Legislation:," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, April 24, 2011.

On April 14, 2011, Senator Frank R. Lautenberg (D-NJ) introduced the Safe Chemicals Act of 2011. The bill is intended to amend and modernize the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require chemical companies to demonstrate the safety of industrial chemicals and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate safety based on the best available science. The bill is co-sponsored by Senators Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), Charles Schumer (D-NY), and Barbara Boxer (D-CA).

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "House Subcommittee Holds Hearing on NNI Oversight," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, April 21, 2011.

On April 14, 2011, the House Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittee on Research and Science Education held a hearing entitled 'Nanotechnology: Oversight of the National Nanotechnology Initiative and Priorities for the Future.' According to the hearing charter, the purpose of the hearing was to examine the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and address the Nation's research and development priorities for the future.

Bergeson and Campbell, P.C., "NIOSH Requests Comment and Information to Update its Nanotechnology Strategic Plan," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, April 10, 2011.

On the 7th March 2011, the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that it sought comments and information on the types of hazard identification and risk management research that it should consider in updating the NIOSH 2009 nanotechnology strategic plan. What follows is an explanation of why NIOSH's continuing research is essential, and why stakeholders are urged to help shape the content and direction of the research NIOSH undertakes in this critically important area.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "CropLife America Considers Nanotechnology at 2011 Spring Conference," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, April 10, 2011.

At the April 7-8, 2011, CropLife America and RISE (Responsible Industry for a Sound Environment) Spring Conference in Washington, D.C., the future of nanotechnology and its applications in the agricultural sector was the subject of a panel discussion.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "ABA Webinar on ‘Nano Governance: The Current State of Federal, State, and International Regulation," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, April 10, 2011.

On May 19, 2011, the American Bar Association (ABA) Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources Committee on Pesticides, Chemical Regulation and Right-to-Know will convene a webinar on global nanotechnology governance initiatives. The program will explore the new and creative applications of existing regulatory tools and governance approaches to address the potential risks of nanotechnologies, implement new risk assessment approaches to evolving technologies, and maximize the potential benefits of these materials.

James V. Aidala, "Tracking Disease Clusters and Environmental Health," Law360, April 7, 2011.

On March 29, the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works held a hearing entitled “Oversight Hearing on Disease Clusters and Environmental Health.” Committee Chairwoman Barbara Boxer, D-Calif., and Senator Mike Crapo, R-Idaho, ranking member of the Superfund, Toxics and Environmental Health Subcommittee, introduced the Strengthening Protections for Children and Communities from Disease Clusters Act (S. 76), also known as Trevor’s Law, on Jan. 25, 2011.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "RoHS Recast: How Did Nanomaterials Fare?," Nanotechnology Law & Business, Volume 7, Issue 4.

Several types of nanoscale materials recently dodged a bullet as the European Parliament declined to ban nanosilver and long multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the European Union’s Directive on the Restriction and Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment, (more commonly known as “RoHS”). For reasons not entirely clear, detractors of these nanoscale materials tried, and failed, to ban them outright in the RoHS Recast initiative. For nano stakeholders, while the news is good, the process serves as a cautionary tale of the shape of things to come in forthcoming legislative initiatives in the European Union, and likely elsewhere.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Obama Administration sets forth Principles for Regulation and Oversight of Emerging Technologies," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, March 23, 2011.

A March 11, 2011, memorandum from the White House Emerging Technologies Interagency Policy Coordination Committee (ETIPC) sets forth the Obama Administration's principles for regulation and oversight of emerging technologies, including nanotechnology. One might wonder why a memorandum was thought necessary, and indeed, according to some U.S. trade press reports, the memorandum reportedly was not especially welcome news in some NGO camps. According to these reports, the memorandum reflects further retreat from regulatory initiatives intended to regulate manufactured nanoscale materials. That aside, the tone and content of the missive is promising, and consistent with President Obama's State of the Union remarks in January linking innovation with jobs and a robust economy.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Writing Off Chemicals of Concern," Chemical Week, April 4, 2011.
Lynn L. Bergeson and Chris R. Bryant, "EPA Issues Final Rules for Boilers," Chemical Processing, April 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports that more than 200,000 boilers, process heaters and incinerators will be impacted by a set of Clean Air Act regulations issued on February 21, 2011. Since EPA first proposed the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rules in April 2010, several industry sectors have argued the costs of implementing the rules would pose an unreasonable burden on businesses. In response to this criticism, EPA revised the rules in a manner that it believes cuts the cost of implementation by about 50%.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "PEN Updates," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, March 12, 2011.

On the 10th March 2011, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN) announced that it had updated its nanotech consumer products inventory, and that it continues to grow to include over 1,300 manufacturer-identified, nanotechnology-enabled products that have entered the commercial marketplace around the world. The most recent update to the group's five-year-old inventory reflects the continuing use of the nanoscale materials in everything from conventional products like sports equipment to more unique items such as self-cleaning window treatments.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "US-EU Workshop Literally Covers the Waterfront," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, March 12, 2011.

The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) held a joint workshop in Washington, D.C., entitled 'US-EU Bridging Nano EHS Research Efforts' (10th - 11th March 2011). The workshop was intended to continue the robust dialogue between the United States (US) and European Union (EU) on issues of shared concern pertinent to nanotechnology research initiatives.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "US National Organic Program Approves Ban on Engineered Nanomaterials from Organic Products," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, March 5, 2011.

On December 17, 2010, the US National Organic Program (NOP) voted to accept the recommendation of the US National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) to prohibit engineered nanomaterials from the production, processing, and packaging of certified organic products. The decision was made with little fanfare, but has big implications. 

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Nano Governance: The Current State of Federal, State, and International Regulation," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, March 3, 2011.

On May 19, 2011, the American Bar Association (ABA) Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources (SEER) Pesticides, Chemical Regulation, and Right-to-Know Committee will present a half-day webinar program on nano governance. Nanotechnology Industries Association's intrepid leader, Dr. Steffi Friedrichs, is scheduled to present at this important program.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "OSHA Updates PPE Standards," Chemical Processing, March 2010.

On February 15, 2011, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a revised directive that provides enforcement guidance on determining whether employers have complied with OSHA's personal protective equipment (PPE) standards. The Enforcement Guidance for Personal Protective Equipment in General Industry, CPL 02-01-050, is the latest word from OSHA on PPE, and an important document for employers and employees alike.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Selling Green: US FTC Releases Proposed Revisions to the ‘Green Guides’," Environmental Quality Management, Spring 2011.

After more than three years of discussion, research, review, and debate, the United States Federal Trade Commission (US FTC) released proposed revisions to its Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims (the “Green Guides”) in late 2010. The Green Guides provide FTC “guidance” on what is and is not appropriate in the ever-fluid area of environmental marketing. They are designed to help product marketers avoid making false and misleading environmental claims that might violate section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Act.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "2010 Elections Could Impact EPA Programs," Chemical Processing, December 2010.

The 2010 Congressional elections will likely significantly impact policy and legislative developments in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) regulation of chemicals and pesticides. The decline in the number of elected House Democratic members will make for some significant differences in EPA's budget, legislative proposals and general operations. Meanwhile, some newly elected senators stridently oppose government expansion and want to rein in federal deficit spending, which could affect the future of EPA and other government agencies.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Workplace Falls Get Fresh Attention," Chemical Processing, August 2010.

The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is tackling a major source of industrial injuries -- slips, trips and falls on workplace surfaces. On May 24, OSHA proposed significant revisions to Subparts D and I of the general industry standards dealing with walking-working surfaces and personal protective equipment (PPE), respectively. This column outlines the reasons why OSHA believes changes are needed to protect workers, and key revisions to these standards.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Nanotech and Jobs: Congress Weighs In," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, February 11, 2011.

The new Republication-led House of Representatives has expressed its concerns with what it refers to as the adverse impact of regulations on jobs and the economy.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "South Korea Chemicals Program Targets Nanomaterials," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, February 4, 2011.

The United Nations' Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) urges each nation to make efforts to reduce hazards associated with the use of chemicals. In response to this request, South Korea recently has taken steps to implement a process for the management of chemicals with the objective of minimizing the harmful effects that substances have on human health and the environment.

James V. Aidala, "Make My Day! - Registrant Gets Court To Order EPA To Cancel Their Product," Pesticide and Chemical Policy, February 4, 2011.

Reckitt Benckiser is a manufacturer of a variety of household cleaning and pesticide products, including rodenticides, sold widely under the D-Con brand. In recent years Reckitt Benckiser has formulated rodenticide products using what is known as a “second-generation” anti-coagulant, brodifacoum. The term second-generation refers to the lack of resistance in rodents, which has developed in some cases to earlier, “first-generation” anti-coagulant products, such as warfarin.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "2011 Predictions for US Chemicals Management," Chemical Watch, February 2011.

The trends established by the Obama Administration will continue despite the Congressional mid-term elections in November.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Emerging Nanomaterial Governance Systems: The State of Play," Molecular Imaging, January-February 2011.

Domestic laws, their implementing regulations and policies, and government and private-party governance programs are now being carefully reviewed and revised to enhance their utility to manage the potential risks posed by nanoscale materials. Whether existing laws and their implementing programs are adequate to address such risks will continue to inspire debate and legislative and regulatory initiatives for years to come. This article reviews existing legal and governance oversight systems and analyzes their strengths and deficiencies in addressing the potential risks posed by nanoscale materials and in fostering nanotechnology's promise.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "The NanoRelease Project," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, January 29, 2011.

There is an exciting and promising project underway that is being coordinated by the Research Foundation of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI-RF) called the NanoRelease Project.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Nano Regulation and the New US Congress," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, January 21, 2011.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxic Substances (OPPT) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) were both active with regard to nanoscale materials regulation and policy in 2010. The new year is expected to see comparable activity.

Lynn L. Bergeson and Charles M. Auer, "Nano Disclosures: Too Small to Matter or Too Big to Ignore?," Natural Resources & Environment, Winter 2011.

Determining whether the presence of nanoscale materials in chemical substances, mixtures, and articles triggers a disclosure obligation is complicated. The decision turns on a calculus that includes what law applies, what is known about the presence of nanoscale components, what knowledge standard applies, whether and how a nanoscale material is defined, and an entity’s interpretation of disclosure obligations. This article outlines the state of domestic environmental and securities law and regulatory policy regarding disclosure obligations pertinent to nanoscale materials. The article concludes that there are a growing number of potential disclosure obligations of which commercial entities should be aware, but that the nature of these requirements continues to be fluid and ill-defined.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "SCPA Delays Could Impact Industry," Chemical Processing, January 2011.

In response to concerns expressed by diverse stakeholders over the final draft of its Safer Consumer Product Alternatives (SCPA) regulations, the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) has delayed implementation of the regulations, which focus on chemicals and chemical ingredients in consumer products. The net effect of this recent development on the regulation of chemical substances in consumer products in California is uncertain. This column discusses the recent change in plans and its implications for the chemical community.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "California DTSC Issues DCI for Nano Metals, Nano Metal Oxides, and Quantum Dots," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, January 12, 2011.

On December 21, 2010, the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) issued a much anticipated data call-in (DCI) for information regarding analytical test methods, and other relevant information, from manufacturers of nano silver, nano zero valent iron, nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide, nano cerium oxide, and quantum dots.

Bergeson & Campbell, P.C., "Delayed Implementation of Safer Consumer Product Alternatives Regulations: Implications for Nanoscal," Nanotechnology Industries Association Newsletter, January 1, 2011.

In response to concerns vigorously expressed by diverse stakeholders over the final draft of the Safer Consumer Product Alternatives (SCPA) Regulations, the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) has effectively delayed implementation of the much-anticipated regulations.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "The Proposed TSCA Inventory Update Reporting Rule: Big Changes Are in Store," Environmental Quality Management, Winter 2010.

While debate continues to swirl around whether, and to what extent, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) needs retooling, just about everyone agrees that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) needs more information on chemical production, use, and exposure in order to make informed decisions about chemical risk management. Most also agree that TSCA could be put to greater use for these purposes.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Revisions to the ‘Green Guides’," Pollution Engineering, December 2010.

Early in October, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) released important revisions to its Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims (Green Guides) to make them easier for companies to use and understand.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "CPSC Moves Ahead on Harmful Products Database," Chemical Processing, November 2010.

The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) posted on its website on October 14, 2010, its draft final rule concerning the creation of a publicly available, searchable database on the safety of consumer products and other substances subject to CPSC regulation. The database is intended to provide a single point of access to reports of harm involving consumer products, manufacturer's comments on the reports, and recall information. This article discusses this important new database, and briefly considers its implications.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "U.S. Adopts Global Transportation Standards," Pollution Engineering, November 2010.

New proposed shipping rules that harmonize with international standards will require some study.

Lynn L. Bergeson and James V. Aidala, "How the Elections Could Impact the EPA," Law 360, November 9, 2010.

This article provides a summary outlook on possible implications of the 2010 congressional midterm elections on policy and legislative developments in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s regulation of chemicals and pesticides.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Facts and Consequences," The Environmental Forum, November/December 2010.
Lynn L. Bergeson, "New Inventory Update Rule Reporting Heads Our Way," Chemical Processing, October 2010.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed important revisions to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Update Rule (IUR). This column explains why chemical manufacturers and other stakeholders must be aware of the proposal and prepare now for its implications.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "TSCA Reform: Legislative Action Begins," Environmental Quality Management, Autumn 2010.

On April 15, 2010, Senator Frank R. Lautenberg (D-NJ) released the text of the Safe Chemicals Act of 2010, S. 3209 (SCA),1 which is intended to address the “core failings” of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Toxicity Testing Moves Ahead," Chemical Processing, September 2010.

Who would have thought that an automated laboratory working around the clock could screen chemical substances for interactions with biological targets at speeds mere mortals could hardly consider — let alone match? Well, this is exactly what is occurring today thanks to a collaborative effort known as "Tox21" among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the National Institute of Health Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC). Recently, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) joined the initiative. This column describes this ground-breaking partnership.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Washington:  California Is Setting Precedent," Manufacturing Today, Fall 2010.

The California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) released on June 23, 2010, draft regulations implementing California’s precedent-setting and game-changing Green Chemistry Initiative. Manufacturers need to understand how this controversial regulatory program may operate, and why it will alter forever the way consumer products are designed and manufactured.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Legal Lookout: EPA Issues Final “Tailoring” GHG Permitting Rule," Pollution Engineering, August 2010.

On June 3, 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final rule addressing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stationary sources under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This controversial rule set thresholds for GHG emissions that define when permits under the New Source Review Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Title V operating permit programs are required for new and existing industrial facilities.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "What’s New in Nano?," Trends, July/August 2010.

There are many nanotechnology governance activities underway at the federal, state, and international levels of which nano aficionados should be aware. Here is a quick summary of key initiatives.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Developments on Nanomaterial Governance in U.S. Gather Pace," Chemical Watch, July/August 2010.

Nanotechnology governance initiatives in the US abound and there is no reason to think the pace will slow. Lynn L. Bergeson offers a summary of key initiatives.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Transportation Revisions Are Coming Down the Pipeline," Chemical Processing, July 2010.

The U.S. Department of Transportation's (DOT) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) recently signaled interest in revising the hazardous materials regulations (HMR) governing transportation of combustible materials. PHMSA seeks to harmonize domestic and international regulations applicable to transportation of combustible liquids.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Washington: Safe for Humans?," Manufacturing Today, Summer 2010.

Hundreds of U.S. businesses have already received in the mail test orders issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for initial endocrine screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Hundreds more will receive orders later this year. How recipients respond to an EDSP test order can present challenging issues. This article explains why.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Nanosilver Pesticide Products: What Does the Future Hold?," Environmental Quality Management, Summer 2010.

Last issue’s installment of the “Washington Watch” column discussed some key issues surrounding nanosilver and noted an ongoing review by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP). Now that the SAP has issued its much-anticipated report and recommendations, it is worth revisiting the topic of nanosilver pesticides.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Tiny Particles Get Big Attention," Chemical Processing, June 2010.

Nanoscale materials may figure in Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) reform. While not mentioning "nanotechnology," a bill introduced on April 15, by Sen. Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) addresses chemicals with "special substantive characteristics." The bill authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate and compel data on new/special uses of existing chemicals "separate from any use of the chemical substance that does not exhibit such special substance characteristics" or on new chemical substances exhibiting such characteristics.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Legal Lookout: Endocrine Disruptors: Test Orders Abound," Pollution Engineering, June 2010.

In April 2009, EPA identified a final list of 67 chemicals for initial screening under the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). From October 2009 to April 2010, the agency issued more than 700 test orders. Responding to an EDSP test order can present challenging issues. The agency began implementing this mandate well over a decade ago through the EDSP.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Guest Editorial: The IRIS Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic: Is Science Being Hijacked?," Trends, Spring 2010.

The arsenic Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment exemplifies the current administration’s unwillingness to walk its own talk on transparency and scientific integrity.

Charles M. Auer, Lynn L. Bergeson, and Lisa R. Burchi, "TSCA Section 5(b)(4) ‘Chemicals of Concern’ List: Questions, Issues, Concerns," Daily Environment Report, May 24, 2010.

The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) allows the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to keep a list of chemicals that present or may present ‘‘an unreasonable risk of injury to health or the environment.’’ This authority has not been used since TSCA was enacted in 1976. In April, EPA said it intends to propose a rule to add a category of eight phthalates, a category of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and bisphenol A to such a list. In this article, the authors explore EPA’s authority under Section 5(b)(4) of the TSCA to create a ‘‘chemicals of concern’’ list and discuss legal and policy issues that may arise.

James V. Aidala, "The Toxic Substances Control Act: From the perspective of James V. Aidala," interviewed by Chemical Heritage Foundation, May 20, 2010.

James V. Aidala began working with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a college intern in the Office of Pesticide Programs; he returned as a policy analyst in the new Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPTS) after graduate school. From Aidala’s perspective, there was much uncertainty in the early years of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), in part due to challenges with the law’s specificity regarding polychlorinated biphenyls and, later, asbestos and lead, and in part due to logistical, organizational, and legal difficulties in the early years of TSCA. He also felt that the Reagan Administration was fatal to a cohesive toxics program.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "EPA Seeks to Lift Stay," Chemical Processing, May 2010.

Earlier this year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed lifting its 1994 administrative stay of Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313 reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Following is an explanation of why some are concerned, why EPA proposed lifting the stay, and why reporting may be unnecessary in the first place.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Chemical Pollutants in Water Emerge," Chemical Processing, April 2010.

Recent advances in contaminant identification methodologies, sampling instrumentation, and analytical chemistry have caused an explosion of knowledge about the presence of previously undetected organic micropollutants. While it doesn't follow that the mere presence of chemical contaminants results in harm, public health experts, regulators, and others aren't sitting idly by.

Charles M. Auer, "Periodic Reporting of Hazard Data, Exposure Information on Existing Chemicals," Daily Environment Report, Apr. 14, 2010.

A Recent co-authored paper discussed a number of fundamental changes in U.S. regulation of commercial chemicals that should be considered in revising the Toxic Substances Control Act. As discussed in that paper, while the Environmental Protection Agency under TSCA has broad authority to require testing and reporting of hazard and exposure information on existing chemicals via rulemaking, deploying these authorities have proven cumbersome and inadequate for dealing effectively with the thousands of chemicals in commerce.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Nanosilver: EPA's Pesticide Office Considers How Best to Proceed," Environmental Quality Management, Spring 2010.

In the super-hyped world of nano, nanosilver is the proverbial poster child for all things good and evil, depending upon your perspective. Silver enjoys many commercial applications, and its well recognized antimicrobial properties have been utilized since the beginnings of recorded history. Perhaps because of this success and high visibility, some are taking aim at silver and questioning whether there is too much silver used in industrial applications -- and in particular whether there is too much silver used in consumer product applications in the form of nanoscale silver.

Charles M. Auer, Lynn L. Bergeson, and James V. Aidala, "EPA's Action Plans Signal a New Chapter for TSCA While Informing the Future Legislative Debate on Chemicals," Environmental Law Reporter, March 2010.

Late last December, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced action plans on phthalates, long-chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs), and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs). The four action plans are the first of many, as EPA intends to issue eight more or so in 2010. This EPA initiative announces actions that are almost breathtaking in scope, and its development and implementation of the action plan items will set a number of new precedents -- and possibly shape future legislative proposals -- that industry will need to participate in and monitor closely.

Lynn L. Bergeson, "Aligning Chemicals Labeling with Global Rules Involves Major Efforts," Chemical Processing, March 2010.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) began the Herculean task of aligning the U.S.'s Hazardous Communication Standard (HCS) with the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) in September 2009. GHS provides harmonized criteria for classifying chemicals according to their health and physical hazards, and specifies hazard communication elements for labeling and creating safety data sheets (SDS).

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