Archives

March 31, 2014

EPA Stops Sale of Unregistered Food Containers Containing Nanosilver

On March 31, 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced that it issued an order to Pathway Investment Corp. of Englewood, New Jersey to stop the sale of plastic food storage containers that have not been tested or registered with EPA, in violation of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). According to EPA’s press release, the company’s Kinetic Go Green Premium Food Storage Containers and Kinetic Smartwist Series Containers contain...
March 26, 2014

NNI Publishes Supplement to President’s 2015 Budget

On March 25, 2014, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) published a supplement to President Obama’s 2015 budget request submitted to Congress on March 4, 2014.  The supplement provides a description of the activities underway in 2013 and 2014 and planned for 2015 by the federal government agencies participating in the NNI, primarily from a programmatic and budgetary perspective.  NNI states that it is based on the NNI Strategic Plan and reports actual investments...
March 20, 2014

America Competes Reauthorization Act Would Reauthorize NNI

On March 6, 2014, Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX), Ranking Member of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, introduced the America Competes Reauthorization Act of 2014 (H.R. 4159). The bill would establish, revise, and extend specified science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs, as well as education, research, and training programs.  The bill would reauthorize the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) “to ensure the United States remains a leader in...
March 13, 2014

NSF Announces Availability of Market Report on Emerging Nanotechnology

On February 25, 2014, the National Science Foundation (NSF) announced the results of an NSF and National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO)-funded independent study that identifies more than $1 trillion in global revenue from nano-enabled products in 2013. NSF states that, to help quantify the global growth in nanotechnology research and development, Lux Research released a new report on global spending for emerging nanotechnology and the next generation of nano-enabled...
March 3, 2014

NNCO Releases 2014 NNI Strategic Plan

On February 28, 2014, the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) announced the release of the 2014 National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic Plan.  The NNI Strategic Plan represents the consensus of the participating agencies as to the high-level goals and priorities of the NNI and specific objectives for at least the next three years.  It is intended to provide an integrated, interagency approach informing the nanotechnology-specific strategic plans of NNI...
February 12, 2014

EPA Promulgates Final SNURs for Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Infused Carbon Nanostructures

On February 12, 2014, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued, through a direct final rule, significant new use rules (SNUR) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for 35 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN). The 35 substances include four identified as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (generic) that were the subject of a December 3, 2012, TSCA Section 5(e) consent order. The consent order requires the use of personal protective equipment...
February 11, 2014

Lynn L. Bergeson Participates in Congressionally-Requested Forum on Nanomanufacturing, Which Is Summarized in New GAO Report

On February 7, 2014, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report entitled Nanomanufacturing: Emergence and Implications for U.S. Competitiveness, the Environment, and Human Health, which provides highlights from a Congressionally-requested forum on specific issues in nanotechnology manufacturing that was held July 23-24, 2013. The House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology asked the GAO and the National Academies to convene the forum and elicit the...
January 10, 2014

Journal of Nanoparticle Research Publishes Article Describing Occupational Safety and Health Criteria for Responsible Development of Nanotechnology

On December 7, 2013, the Journal of Nanoparticle Research published online an article entitled “Occupational safety and health criteria for responsible development of nanotechnology.” The authors, who are affiliated with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), describe five criterion actions that they believe should be practiced by decision-makers to ensure the responsible development of nanotechnology: “(1) anticipate, identify, and track potentially...
December 20, 2013

NIOSH Publishes Nanotechnology Research and Guidance Strategic Plan

On December 20, 2013, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a document entitled Protecting the Nanotechnology Workforce: NIOSH Nanotechnology Research and Guidance Strategic Plan, 2013-2016. NIOSH describes the document as “the roadmap being used to advance basic understanding of the toxicology and workplace exposures involved so that appropriate risk management practices can be implemented during discovery, development, and...
November 19, 2013

Draft NNI Strategic Plan Released for Public Comment

On November 19, 2013, the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Technology, and Subcommittee on Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology requested public comments on the draft 2014 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan. The Strategic Plan provides the framework within which each National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) agency will carry out its nanotechnology programs and is intended to sustain coordination of interagency activities. The Strategic Plan...
November 11, 2013

NIOSH Issues New Recommendations to Control Worker Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials

On November 8, 2013, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a report entitled Current Strategies for Engineering Controls in Nanomaterial Production and Downstream Handling Processes, which identifies and describes strategies for the engineering control of worker exposure during the production or use of engineered nanomaterials. NIOSH notes that there are currently more than 1,000 nanomaterial-containing consumer products available, including “makeup,...
November 8, 2013

Court Vacates and Remands EPA’s Conditional Registration of HeiQ’s Nanosilver Products

On November 7, 2013, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit granted in part and denied in part the Natural Resources Defense Council’s (NRDC) petition for review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) conditional registration of HeiQ AGS-20 and AGS-20 U (collectively, AGS-20) nanosilver products. The court held that “substantial evidence” supported EPA’s decision to use the characteristics of toddlers rather than infants in determining whether AGS-20 placed...
October 30, 2013

FDA Finds Current Regulatory Review Processes Protect Public from Risks of Nanomaterials

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) posted a blog item on October 24, 2013, concerning the use of nanotechnology to develop new drugs. According to the item, “[t]here are already many products made using materials at the nanoscale, including new kinds of clothing, packaging materials, and light-weight, but strong, building materials.” CDER conducted a series of risk assessment and risk management exercises concerning...
September 20, 2013

Nickel Nanoparticles Nominated for Listing in Report on Carcinogens

On September 20, 2013, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) published a Federal Register notice requesting information on 20 substances, mixtures, and exposure circumstances, including nickel nanoparticles, nominated for possible review for future editions of the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). NTP seeks information concerning:  (1) data on current production, use patterns, and human exposure; (2) information about published, ongoing, or planned studies related to evaluating...
September 17, 2013

NNI Posts Report on Symposium on Assessing the Economic Impact of Nanotechnology

The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) has posted a report on its March 2012 international “Symposium on Assessing the Economic Impact of Nanotechnology.” NNI held the symposium in conjunction with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) hosted it. Participants included scientists, engineers, policy analysts, private investors, technology leaders, and the general public from both OECD and...
September 12, 2013

NRC Releases Report on Advancing Research Agenda for EHS Aspects of Nanomaterials

On September 12, 2013, the National Research Council (NRC) released a report entitled Research Progress on Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) asked the NRC to perform an independent study to develop and monitor the implementation of an integrated research strategy to address the environmental, health, and safety (EHS) aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). The Committee to Develop a Research...
September 10, 2013

CRS Prepares Report on National Nanotechnology Initiative

The Congressional Research Service (CRS) prepared an August 9, 2013, report entitled The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Overview, Reauthorization, and Appropriations Issues. According to the report, from fiscal year (FY) 2001 through FY 2013, the federal government invested approximately $17.9 billion in nanoscale science, engineering, and technology through the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). President Obama has requested $1.7 billion in NNI funding for...
August 28, 2013

EPA Announces Proposed Decision to Register Nanosilver Pesticide Product

On August 27, 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced its proposed decision to register “Nanosilva,” a nanosilver-containing antimicrobial pesticide product. According to EPA, Nanosilva is a silver-based product “used as a non-food-contact preservative to protect plastics and textiles (e.g., in household items, electronics, sports gear, hospital equipment, bathroom fixtures and accessories) from odor and stain causing bacteria, fungi, mold and mildew.” EPA states...
August 5, 2013

NNI Will Hold Workshop on Stakeholder Perspectives on the Perception, Assessment, and Management of the Potential Risks of Nanotechnology

The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) will hold a September 10-11, 2013, workshop concerning “Stakeholder Perspectives on the Perception, Assessment, and Management of the Potential Risks of Nanotechnology.” NNI is holding the workshop to facilitate stakeholder discussion of key elements needed to assess, manage, and communicate potential risks associated with use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology-enabled products, including: The workshop will include three roundtable...
July 21, 2013

NIOSH Announces Public Meeting and Opportunity for Public Comment on Proposed Survey

On June 19, 2013, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a Federal Register notice announcing a public meeting and opportunity for comment on a proposed NIOSH survey. The primary purpose of the survey is to evaluate the use of NIOSH guidelines and risk mitigation practices for safe handling of engineered nanomaterials in the workplace.  The proposed survey will examine the extent to which NIOSH and other guidelines are implemented and the barriers to...
July 13, 2013

USDA Announces Public-Private Partnership to Advance Commercial Potential of Cellulosic Nanomaterial from Wood

On December 11, 2013, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced a three-year public-private partnership intended to advance rapidly “the development of the first U.S. commercial facility producing cellulosic nanomaterial, a wood fiber broken down to the nanoscale.” The partnership is between the U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities (Endowment) and the U.S. Forest Service. According to USDA, potential applications include ballistic glass replacements, body armor,...
July 8, 2013

EPA Regulatory Agenda Includes Notice Concerning Nanoscale Materials

On July 3, 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) posted its 2013 Regulatory Agenda, which includes the following item concerning nanoscale materials: Nanoscale Materials; Chemical Substances When Manufactured, Imported, or Processed as Nanoscale Materials; Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements; Significant New Use Rule: EPA is developing a proposal to establish reporting and recordkeeping requirements under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for chemical...
July 3, 2013

EPA Promulgates Final SNURs for 17 Chemical Substances, Including Certain Carbon Nanotubes

On June 26, 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated final significant new use rules (SNUR) for 17 chemical substances that were the subject of premanufacture notices (PMN), including for certain carbon nanotubes. The SNURs require persons who intend to manufacture or process any of these 17 chemical substances for an activity that is designated as a significant new use to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that activity. The final rule includes EPA’s...
June 26, 2013

NNI Posts FAQs for Small and Medium Businesses

The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) posted frequently asked questions (FAQ) for small and medium business and industry. According to NNI, the FAQs provide answers to some of the most common questions from the nanotechnology business community. The FAQs provide links to sites where a nanotechnology start-up company can obtain information about government funding opportunities; resources intended to help a small company focusing on research and development of nanotechnology-enabled...
June 4, 2013

NNCO Will Hold Public Workshop Regarding Updating the NNI Strategic Plan

The National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) will hold a workshop on June 11-12, 2013, to obtain input from stakeholders regarding the goals and objectives of an updated National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategic Plan, which is currently under development and scheduled for completion by December 2013. Participants will be invited to suggest additions to and provide feedback on wording and emphasis areas in the NNI goals, the objectives that support these goals, and the...
May 30, 2013

NNI Publishes Report on RSL Initiatives in Nanotechnology

On May 17, 2013, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) published a report on regional, state, and local (RSL) initiatives in nanotechnology. The report is the result of a workshop, convened May 1-2, 2012, and sponsored by the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council and the Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute. The goal of the workshop was to improve the outcomes of nanotechnology research,...
May 22, 2013

EPA Promulgates SNUR for Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

On May 9, 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a significant new use rule (SNUR) for premanufacture notice (PMN) substance P-12-44, which is identified as “functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes.” According to the Federal Register notice, “[t]he PMN states that the generic (non-confidential) use of the substance is as an additive for rubber and batteries.” EPA states that it determined that “use of the substance other than as...
May 6, 2013

Lynn L. Bergeson Will Participate in DOD Webinar

On May 15, 2013, Lynn L. Bergeson will participate in a U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) webinar on “Sustainable Chemicals and Materials for Defense Forum.” Bergeson will provide an overview of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) proposed significant new use rules for carbon nanomaterials and biobased chemicals/new chemical exposure limits. The webinar is open to interested stakeholders, who should contact Joey Skoloda for more information....
April 30, 2013

EPA Applies Life-Cycle Assessment to Nanoscale Technology

On April 30, 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment (DfE) announced the availability of the final report entitled Application of Life-Cycle Assessment to Nanoscale Technology: Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted by the DfE/Office of Research and Development (ORD) Li-ion Batteries and Nanotechnology Partnership. The Partnership conducted a screening-level LCA of currently manufactured lithium-ion...
April 26, 2013

USA Today Runs Article on New NIOSH Nanotech Safety Guidelines

An April 26, 2013, USA Today article entitled “CDC sets carbon nanotech safety guidelines” reports on the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB) 65, Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers.  The article includes comments from Andrew Maynard, Chair of Environmental Health Sciences at the University of Michigan,  Todd Kuiken with the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies at the Woodrow Wilson Center for...
April 25, 2013

NIOSH CIB on Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Includes Lower REL

On April 24, 2013, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) released Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers, which includes a proposed recommended exposure limit (REL) that is significantly lower than that in the 2010 draft. NIOSH issues Current Intelligence Bulletins (CIB) to disseminate new scientific information about occupational hazards. CIB 65 reviews animal and other toxicological data...
April 24, 2013

NRC Identifies Five High Priorities to Improve NNI

The National Research Council (NRC) announced on April 23, 2013, that its second triennial review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified five “cross-cutting, high-priority areas for focus and improvement for NNI going forward”: In its report, the NRC assesses NNI’s role in maximizing opportunities to transfer selected technologies to the private sector and suggests improvements and new mechanisms intended to foster technology transfer. The NRC evaluates...
April 16, 2013

TSCA Reform Legislation Would Regulate Special Substance Characteristic

On April 10, 2013, Senator Frank R. Lautenberg (D-NJ) reintroduced the Safe Chemicals Act (S. 696), which would reform the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and is identical to legislation (S. 847) reported favorably out of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on a party-line vote in the 112th Congress. While the bill does not specifically mention nanomaterials, it defines “special substance characteristic”: (A) IN GENERAL. — The term ‘special substance...
April 8, 2013

USDA Withdraws Final Rule Amending Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) published a notice on April 8, 2013, withdrawing its April 1, 2013, final rule concerning the designation of product categories for federal procurement. According to the USDA, it is withdrawing the final rulemaking, which amended the guidelines for designating biobased products for federal procurement, because it published the final rule prematurely “due to an oversight in the development process.” The notice states that USDA’s Office of...
April 1, 2013

USDA Amends Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement

In an April 1, 2013, final rule, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) amended the Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement. The amendments add eight sections to designate product categories within which biobased products will be afforded federal procurement preference: aircraft and boat cleaners; automotive care products; engine crankcase oil; gasoline fuel additives; metal cleaners and corrosion removers; microbial cleaning products; paint removers; and water...
March 22, 2013

House Committee Launches Bipartisan Review of Renewable Fuel Standard

This week, the House Energy and Commerce Committee released the first of five bipartisan white papers that explore important policy implications related to continued implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). The white papers are intended to solicit input and stimulate debate in several areas:  infrastructure, fuel compatibility, blending, economics, and environmental issues. Each paper will provide a detailed policy analysis on one area and then outline a...
March 12, 2013

NIOSH Announces New Findings on Lung Tumor Formation in Laboratory Mice Exposed to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

On March 11, 2013, at the annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology, researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reported preliminary findings from a new laboratory study in which mice were exposed by inhalation to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). According to NIOSH, the study was designed to investigate whether these tiny particles have potential to initiate or promote cancer. One group of laboratory mice was injected with a...
March 7, 2013

USDA Issues BioPreferred Program Notification

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) posted a notice on its website concerning the BioPreferred Program. According to USDA, due to the absence of funding in the Farm Bill extension legislation, USDA has suspended the processing of applications for voluntary certification of biobased products. USDA states that it “will continue limited activities related to the Federal procurement preference program, such as adding products to the BioPreferred catalog, as staff resources...
February 27, 2013

Honda Reintroduces NANO Act

On January 23, 2013, Representative Mike Honda (D-CA) reintroduced the Nanotechnology Advancement and New Opportunities (NANO) Act (H.R.394). Honda described the Act as a comprehensive bill intended to promote the development and responsible stewardship of nanotechnology in the U.S. Honda based the legislation on the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Task Force on Nanotechnology, a panel of California nanotechnology experts convened by Honda and then-California State Controller Steve Westly...
February 5, 2013

OSHA Publishes Fact Sheet on Working Safely with Nanomaterials

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently published a fact sheet entitled Working Safely with Nanomaterials. OSHA notes that workers who use nanotechnology in research or production processes may be exposed to nanomaterials through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. OSHA intends the fact sheet to provide “basic information to workers and employers on the most current understanding of potential hazards associated with this rapidly-developing...
February 1, 2013

EPA Announces Proposed 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced on January 31, 2013, the proposed 2013 percentage standards for four fuel categories that are part of the Renewable Fuel Standard Program. Once EPA publishes the proposed standards in the Federal Register, there will be a 45-day comment period. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), the annual renewable fuel volume targets steadily increase to an overall level of 36 billion gallons in 2022. To meet...
January 29, 2013

Court Vacates 2012 Cellulosic Biofuel Requirements

On January 25, 2013, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit vacated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) 2012 cellulosic biofuel requirements under the renewable fuel standard. American Petroleum Institute v. EPA, D.C. Cir., No. 12-1139. In its January 2012 final rule, EPA projected that 8.65 million gallons of cellulosic biofuel would be produced in 2012, and determined that a reduction in the volume of total advanced biofuels was unnecessary because...
January 25, 2013

Court Hears Oral Arguments in Case Challenging Conditional Registration of Nanosilver

Oral arguments were held on January 16, 2013, in the Natural Resources Defense Council’s (NRDC) case challenging the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) conditional registration of HeiQ AGS-20, a nanosilver product. NRDC filed suit on January 26, 2012, in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (California). During oral arguments, EPA maintained that NRDC lacks standing to challenge the conditional registration. The judges appeared to reject EPA’s...
January 22, 2013

NIOSH Seeks Comment for Updating Its 2013-2016 Nanotechnology Strategic Plan

On January 18, 2013, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a Federal Register notice seeking comment on the types of hazard identification and risk management research to consider in updating its fiscal years 2013-2016 nanotechnology strategic plan. NIOSH states that it wants to “build on the accomplishments of ongoing research” to “develop strategic research goals and objectives for nanotechnology occupational safety and health research...
January 7, 2013

EPA Regulatory Agenda Includes Notices Concerning Nanoscale Materials

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is scheduled to announce in the January 8, 2013, Federal Register the availability of its 2012 Regulatory Agenda. EPA’s Regulatory Agenda includes the following notice concerning nanoscale materials: Nanoscale Materials; Chemical Substances When Manufactured, Imported, or Processed as Nanoscale Materials; Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements; Significant New Use Rule: EPA is developing a proposal to establish reporting...
December 26, 2012

EPA Amends Definition of Clean Cellulosic Biomass

On December 20, 2012, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson signed a final rule setting forth EPA’s final decision on the issues for which it granted reconsideration pertaining to its March 21, 2011, final rule entitled “Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources: Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units.” The December 20, 2012, rule makes technical corrections to the March...
December 18, 2012

NIOSH to Publish Information and Comment Request for Silver Nanoparticles

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is scheduled to publish in the December 19, 2012, Federal Register a request for information and comment on silver nanoparticles. According to the notice, NIOSH has initiated an evaluation of the scientific data on silver nanoparticles “to ascertain the potential health risks to workers and to identify gaps in knowledge so that appropriate laboratory and field research studies can be...
December 12, 2012

EPA and CPSC Collaborating on Nanomaterial Research

On December 11, 2012, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) announced a research collaboration intended to assess potential impacts of nanomaterials on people’s health and the environment.  According to EPA’s press release, the research is part of a “larger international effort” that includes: The press release states that CPSC will use the results of the research to inform:...
December 7, 2012

EPA Determines Grain Sorghum Ethanol Qualifies as a Renewable Fuel

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa Jackson signed on November 30, 2012, a supplemental rule associated with the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Program. The final rule contains a lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) analysis for grain sorghum ethanol and a regulatory determination that grain sorghum ethanol qualifies as a renewable fuel under the RFS Program. According to the rule, EPA’s analysis indicates that ethanol made from grain sorghum at dry mill facilities that...
November 30, 2012

Regulatory Cooperation Council Holds Stakeholder Webinar on Nanotechnology Initiative

On November 28, 2012, the Canada-U.S. Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC) held a webinar to discuss its RCC Nanotechnology Work Plan. Canada and the U.S. created the RCC to align better their regulatory approaches in a number of areas, including nanotechnology. According to information presented during the webinar, while the U.S. has received 137 notifications concerning nanomaterial substances, Canada has received only 16. While most of the nanomaterial substances...